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Educators have long known that standardized tests are an inaccurate and unfair measure of student progress. 有更好的方法来评估学生.
本文原载于 恩颐投资.org


  1. 标准化考试不能准确地衡量学生的学习和成长.
  2. 不像标准化考试, 基于成绩的评估允许学生选择如何展示他们的学习.
  3. Performance-based assessment is equitable, accurate, and engaging for students and teachers.

说出你的不. 2 pencil and answer this multiple choice question: How do standardized tests measure student learning?

A. 在单个快照中.
B. 带有偏见的测试问题.
C. 没有决定学习成长.
D. 以上都是.

如果你没有回答“以上所有”,那么:A. 你一直没专心,或者B. 你在一家测试软件公司工作.

菠菜导航网大多数人都知道这一点 标准化考试不准确、不公平,而且常常无效 衡量学生的实际知识. 好消息是, there’s a better way:  Performance-based assessment provides an essential piece of the puzzle in measuring student 成长th.


This system of learning and assessment allows students to demonstrate knowledge and skill through critical-thinking, 解决问题, 协作, 以及将知识应用于现实世界. 换句话说,它可以帮助学生为大学、职业和生活做好准备.

PBA also allows educators to create more engaging instruction and address learning gaps by observing over time. And it helps them gather well-rounded information to better support their students’ success—a far cry from the “drill and kill” of state and federal standardized tests.

PBA can mean asking students to compose a few sentences in an open-ended short response; 在一篇文章中进行全面的分析; conduct a laboratory investigation; curate a portfolio of student work; or complete an original research paper.

Younger students may design experiments, write poems, or create art that demonstrate concepts. 

“PBA让学生在如何展示他们所学知识方面有更多的选择, 它允许针对不同的学习风格进行差异化的教学,莫利·马林诺夫斯基说, 林奇小学的一年级老师, 在温彻斯特学区, 在马萨诸塞州. “标准化考试不允许选择,因为它是一刀切的. 学生可能有知识, 但可能无法在考试中展示他们所知道和理解的内容. 他们可以在PBA中证明这一点.” 

“Performance-based assessment allows students more choice in how they can show what they’ve 一年级老师Molly Malinowski说.


One of Malinowski’s favorite math assessments focuses on addition, using numbers from 0 through 20. 她介绍了这个概念和, 以探究为基础的教学, 展示课程和谈论策略. 当学生提出问题时,这个过程会激发他们的好奇心. 在单元结束时,他们有一个“加法庆祝”.”

She starts by building fluency and then asks students to share their 解决问题 strategies with the class.

“的 best part is that they get to show their learning in a lot of different ways,” Malinowski says. “为了这个数学标准, 他们制作了一个视频, 一张海报, 录音, 一个mini-play, 或者是一篇文章. 学生在如何展示他们的学习方面有发言权.” 

PBA allows students to demonstrate knowledge and skill through critical-thinking, 解决问题, 协作, 以及将知识应用于现实世界. 换句话说,它可以帮助学生为大学、职业和生活做好准备.

And when they share with the class, that helps reinforces everyone’s learning, she explains. 这些都不可能在单独的测试中实现.

“With this kind of instruction and assessment, we can … offer targeted support,” she says. “有些学生想要创作自己的作品, 而其他人则需要更多的脚手架, 这样我就能看到谁在学习什么了.”

在她学校的每个学术领域, 从数学到语言艺术再到科学和社会研究, 拥有个人执业资格证书.

“菠菜导航网一直被鼓励花时间为菠菜导航网的年级水平开发PBAs, 开发和调整它们, 菠菜导航网会不断尝试并进行编辑,她补充道. 


Malinowski teaches in one of eight public school districts participating in the 马萨诸塞州创新教育评估协会.

MCIEA is a partnership between these school districts and their local teachers unions, 谁在共同努力建立一个公平有效的问责制, offering a more dynamic picture of student quality and learning than a single standardized test. 

“的 first objective of MCIEA is to measure  student learning in a way that relies on teacher-created, classroom-embedded, performance assessments rather than externally created standardized assessments,MCIEA联合创始人杰克·施耐德说. “的 second objective is to measure school quality in a way that is more holistic, 有效的, 比标准化考试更民主.”

Molly Malinowski教室
在科学合理的评估, Molly Malinowski’s students use what they learned to create instruments from recycled materials. 图片来源:Molly Malinowski

的 consortium’s framework goes beyond test scores and graduation and absentee rates, 而是关注学生参与和成就的多种衡量标准, 还有学校环境.

“It’s a more equitable system that doesn’t punish marginalized students,” Schneider explains.

当前用来衡量学生成功的数据, 增加了施耐德, 与种族密切相关, 收入, 以及家庭教育程度. 它实际上只告诉菠菜导航网校外的优势和劣势, 而不是学校实际在做什么.

“We want to capture all of the things that show student learning and achievement, 不仅仅是这种根植于当前体制的扭曲狭隘的愿景,他说. 

“数据中哪里是学生的参与度, 他们的归属感, 表演艺术, 或者公民能力的发展?他问道。. “存在巨大的差距. 因此,许多当前的变量只是伪装的人口统计数据.”

在标准化考试中,只有一个正确答案. 其他答案都是错的. 但教育工作者知道学生什么时候在从事真实而有意义的任务, 他们可以得出既不完全错误也不完全正确的答案.

“We’d never give someone a standardized test to see if they can fly an airplane,” Schneider says. “PBA can show us much more effectively what a student knows that actually reflects the complexity of knowing and doing something.”


“PBA允许学生提出更多的问题,并相互交流想法, 在不降低严谨度的情况下减少焦虑,艾丽莎·霍兰德说. 来源:Jason Grow

Alissa Holland is an instructional coach in the Milford Public Schools district, 在马萨诸塞州, 参加MCIEA的地区之一.

“Standardized tests create test anxiety and some kids even have test phobia because they have just this one chance at getting it right,霍兰德说。, 谁在史黛西中学工作. “PBA允许学生提出更多的问题,并相互交流想法, 在不降低严谨度的情况下减少焦虑."

PBA还消除了偏见,创造了更多的公平. 例如, Holland recalls a state standardized test question about decomposition for eighth-grade science: “的 question asked about grass clippings after mowing the lawn, 学生们被‘割草’搞得心烦意乱,”她说. “Some had no idea what they were because they either lived in apartments and had no lawns, 或者他们有草坪,但没有修剪,因为他们有园林设计师.”

分解的PBA, 另一方面, would allow students to show their learning by demonstrating it with something they’re familiar with—grass clippings, 苹果核, 或者公园里的树叶——在一个图表里, 散文或诗歌, 或艺术作品. 随着时间的推移,学生可以展示更多的知识, 以他们选择的形式, 而不是某一天, 在一个测试问题上, 只有一个答案是正确的, 荷兰解释说.


她的同事丹·科特(Dan Cote)是同一地区的一名社会研究教师,他对此表示赞同. 他说,没有人喜欢在一次考试中背出他们知道的所有东西.

“PBA过程承认学习发生在不同的阶段, 在评估过程中,菠菜导航网可以在哪里提供反馈和培养技能,科特说。. “It also increases engagement because students walk in the shoes of a geographer or historian, 用模拟现实世界活动的任务.”  

在Dan Cote的社会研究课上, students demonstrate learning by studying artifacts like real-world archaeologists and explaining how they would lead an ancient civilization. 来源:Jason Grow


标准和规则并不总是要求合作, 当然,考试中也不需要团队合作, 但在PBA, 学生们经常在小组中学习,以培养关键的社交技能.

当科特的学生学习早期文明时, they form teams of four and decide together what time period and landscape their civilization would inhabit. 

“他们有艰难的决定要做,有问题要解决, 比如农民的法律, 如何应对自然灾害, 作为一个文明,他们应该投资什么,科特解释道. 

然后每个学生写出他们对所发生事情的描述, like a historian would—which demonstrates how easily bias occurs when the students read the other students’ varying versions of the same events.”

然后学生们从他们的文明中创造文物, 他们的同学试着猜测每个学生生活在哪个文明.


“学生们总是说,一起工作是最好的部分,”他说. 这对老师来说是最好的部分, 太, 因为这有助于他们与学生建立更牢固的关系. 

科特说:“当菠菜导航网能听到他们的想法时,菠菜导航网会收获更多。. “这不是考试成绩的问题.” 



We are on a mission to dismantle unjust systems and build the world our students deserve. 在一起, 作为教育者和盟友, 菠菜导航网可以采取行动帮助所有的学生——无论肤色和背景——学习, 成长, 发挥他们的潜力.


的 俄勒冈教育协会 (OEA) is a union committed to the cause of providing the basic right of great public education to every student. OEA代表大约41个,000 educators working in pre-kindergarten through grade 12 public schools and community colleges. OEA的会员包括有执照的教师和专家, 分类/教育支援专业人员, 社区学院教师, 退休教师, 学生成员. OEA成员也属于这三个国家.全国教育协会(恩颐投资)会员200万.